In general, females scored much higher than did the male coaches. High school coaches scored much higher than college level coaches in democratic behavior. In addition, bringing coaches together to a common setting could have reduced location threat.
The surveys were mailed out, and returned on a volunteer basis. The purpose of the study was to determine possible differences in leadership behaviors, using the Revised Leadership for Sport Scale RLSSbetween male and female coaches and among different coaching levels.
The internal consistency for each section was calculated: The power of the study needs to be increased by obtaining a larger sample size.
Certain coaching styles are more applicable for individual sports wrestling, track, and tennis than for team sports football, soccer, and basketball. The sample number for junior high coaches, in particular, is rather low.
The researchers mention that the scales were given in a variety of settings. A MANOVA was again used to analyze the data for any interaction between gender and coaching level with regard to overall leadership behavior.
The numerous potential threats to internal validity need to be addressed and minimized where possible. There was no effect size is listed for the study. Without these, it is impossible to evaluate the potential meaningfulness of this study. There were significant differences between the three levels.
There are a number of other factors that could effect the internal validity of the study, yet were not addressed by the researchers. An additional set of questions regarding the personal history of the coach in question could have helped reduce many of these threats.
Research Critique 1 Jamber, E. Perhaps obtaining permission to administer the survey during these meetings would have been possible. When breaking down the six behaviors and examining them individually, an ANOVA was used to analyze the data.
Once again, a better analysis method could have been chosen based on the nature of the data collected. By increasing the number of independent variables to include things such as coaching experience and gender of the athletes, the researchers could have reduced some of the potential threats to internal validity.
A MANOVA was used to analyze the data for differences between male and female coaches with regard to leadership behaviors. Investigating leadership, gender, and coaching level using the Revised Leadership for Sport Scale.
Certain schools have better athletes and programs in a particular sport, while others may not be able to field a winning team. A MANOVA was also used to examine the data for differences between the three levels of coaching junior high, high school, and college with regard to leadership behavior in general.
If the program has had several losing seasons in a row, perhaps the attitude of the coach could be different than that of a coach who has recently won a state title. Within the sample, 0.
This scale is used to measure six leadership behaviors: While this is a good sample size, the problem lies with the distribution of the sample. The analysis showed there were no significant differences between male and female coaches in overall leadership behaviors. The sample was nonrandom, including coaches that were chosen on a volunteer basis.
The three coaching levels scored differently on three of the six behaviors: Junior high coaches also demonstrated a lesser degree of social support than either the high school or college coaches.
This produced an ordinal level data set. Scales were administered in a number of environmental settings: When the six leadership styles were examined separately, there was a significant difference in social support between males and females.
The ecological generaliziability for the study is fairly high. Journal of Sport Behavior, 20, The results indicated no significant interactions. It would have also been possible to actually go to individual schools and meet with the coaches as a group to administer surveys. With regard to coaching level, 25 0.
While the study has merit, the methods need to be re-evaluated.A critique emphasizes the same elements as a research design (and then some) and evaluates how well the author has carried out these elements. The “and then some” part is that, for completed research, a critique also covers the data analysis and whether that has been properly carried out and interpreted.
A critique is a systematic way of objectively reviewing a piece of research to highlight both its strengths and weaknesses, and its applicability to practice. Professionals often need to be able to identify best current practice, and. Experimental Research Article Critique experimental method, did the research fulfill all three criteria for the experimental method?
If this was a correlational design, what all would the FORMAT: All papers must be neatly typed and proofread.
Use double spacing, 1” margins, a. The Uniqueness of Experimental Research * Experimental research is unique in that it is the only type of research that directly attempts to influence a particular variable, and it is the only type that, when used properly, can really.
Sample summary & critique papers These examples are reproduced from Writing in Biology. Jan experimental method, main findings and interpretation of the results. If you can Example summary and critique of primary research paper. Research Critique of Quantitative Research on Nursing Practice.
Print Part of this process of providing care based on the best available evidence involves appraising primary research (Elliott,p ). HRQL in Thai PLWHA’ (Tangkawanich et al, p ). The nature of this statement would suggest that it is not an experimental.Download